Delphi Programming Guide
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Part I - Foundations
  Chapter 1 Delphi 7 and Its IDE
  Chapter 2 The Delphi Programming Language
  Chapter 3 The Run-Time Library
  Chapter 4 Core Library classes
  Chapter 5 Visual Controls
  Chapter 6 Building the User Interface
  Chapter 7 Working with Forms
Part II - Delphi Object-Oriented Architectures
  Chapter 8 The Architecture of Delphi Applications
  Chapter 9 Writing Delphi Components
  Chapter 10 Libraries and Packages
  Chapter 11 Modeling and OOP Programming (with ModelMaker)
  Chapter 12 From COM to COM+
Part III - Delphi Database-Oriented Architectures
  Chapter 13 Delphi's Database Architecture
  Chapter 14 Client/Server with dbExpress
  Chapter 15 Working with ADO
  Chapter 16 Multitier DataSnap Applications
  Chapter 17 Writing Database Components
  Chapter 18 Reporting with Rave
Part IV - Delphi, the Internet, and a .NET Preview
  Chapter 19 Internet Programming: Sockets and Indy
  Chapter 20 Web Programming with WebBroker and WebSnap
  Chapter 21 Web Programming with IntraWeb
  Chapter 22 Using XML Technologies
  Chapter 23 Web Services and SOAP
  Chapter 24 The Microsoft .NET Architecture from the Delphi Perspective
  Chapter 25 Delphi for .NET Preview: The Language and the RTL
       
  Appendix A Extra Delphi Tools by the Author
  Appendix B Extra Delphi Tools from Other Sources
  Appendix C Free Companion Books on Delphi
       
  Index    
  List of Figures    
  List of tables    
  List of Listings    
  List of Sidebars  

 
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Advanced DataSnap Features

DataSnap includes many more features than I've covered up to now. Here is a quick tour of some of the more advanced features of the architecture, partially demonstrated by the AppSPlus and ThinPlus examples. Unfortunately, demonstrating every piece of functionality would turn this chapter into an entire book, so I'll limit myself to an overview.

Warning 

The ThinPlus example requires Delphi's socket server (provided in Delphi's bin folder) to run. Without this program, you'll see a socket error when the client tries to connect with the server. The plus side is that you can easily deploy the program over a network by modifying the IP address of the server in the client program.

Besides the features discussed in the following sections, the AppSPlus and ThinPlus examples demonstrate the use of a socket connection, limited logging of events and updates on the server side, and direct fetching of a record on the client side. The last feature is accomplished with this call:

procedure TClientForm.ButtonFetchClick(Sender: TObject);
begin
  ButtonFetch.Caption := IntToStr (cds.GetNextPacket);
end;

This allows you to get more records than are required by the client user interface (the DBGrid). In other words, you can fetch records directly, without waiting for the user to scroll down in the grid. I suggest you study the details of these complex examples after reading the rest of this section.

Parametric Queries

If you want to use parameters in a query or stored procedure, then instead of building a custom solution (with a custom method call to the server), you can let Delphi help you. First define the query on the middle tier with a parameter:

select * from customer where Country = :Country

Use the Params property to set the type and default value of the parameter. On the client side, you can use the Fetch Params command from the ClientDataSet's shortcut menu, after connecting the component to the proper provider. At run time, you can call the equivalent FetchParams method of the ClientDataSet component.

Now you can provide a local default value for the parameter by acting on the Params property. The value of the parameter will be sent to the middle tier when you fetch the data. The ThinPlus example refreshes the parameter with the following code:

procedure TFormQuery.btnParamClick(Sender: TObject);
begin
  cdsQuery.Close;
  cdsQuery.Params[0].AsString := EditParam.Text;
  cdsQuery.Open;
end;

You can see the secondary form of this example, which shows the result of the parametric query in a grid, in Figure 16.5. The figure also shows some custom data sent by the server, as explained in the section "Customizing the Data Packets."

Click To expand
Figure 16.5: The secondary form of the ThinPlus example, showing the data of a parametric query

Custom Method Calls

Because the server has a normal COM interface, you can add more methods or properties to it and call them from the client. Simply open the server's type library editor and use it as with any other COM server. In the AppSPlus example, I've added a custom Login method with the following implementation:

procedure TAppServerPlus.Login(const Name, Password: WideString);
begin
  // TODO: add actual login code...
  if Password <> Name then
    raise Exception.Create ('Wrong name/password combination received')
  else
    Query.Active := True;
  ServerForm.Add ('Login:' + Name + '/' + Password);
end;

The program performs a simple test, instead of checking the name/password combination against a list of authorizations as a real application should do. Also, disabling the Query doesn't really work, because it can be activated by the provider; disabling the DataSetProvider is a more robust approach. The client has a simple way to access the server: the AppServer property of the remote connection component. Here is a sample call from the ThinPlus example, which takes place in the AfterConnect event of the connection component:

procedure TClientForm.ConnectionAfterConnect(Sender: TObject);
begin
  Connection.AppServer.Login (Edit2.Text, Edit3.Text);
end;

Note that you can call extra methods of the COM interface through DCOM and also using a socket-based or HTTP connection. Because the program uses the safecall calling convention, the exception raised on the server is automatically forwarded and displayed on the client side. This way, when a user selects the Connect check box, the event handler used to enable the client datasets is interrupted, and a user with the wrong password won't be able to see the data.

Note 

Besides direct method calls from the client to the server, you can also implement callbacks from the server to the client. You can use this approach, for example, to notify every client of specific events. COM events are one way to do this. As an alternative, you can add a new interface, implemented by the client, which passes the implementation object to the server. This way, the server can call the method on the client computer. Callbacks are not possible with HTTP connections, though.

Master/Detail Relations

If your middle-tier application exports multiple datasets, you can retrieve them using multiple ClientDataSet components on the client side and connect them locally to form a master/detail structure. This approach will create quite a few problems for the detail dataset unless you retrieve all the records locally.

This solution also makes it quite complex to apply the updates; you cannot usually cancel a master record until all related detail records have been removed, and you cannot add detail records until the new master record is properly in place. (Different servers handle this situation differently, but in most cases where a foreign key is used, this is the standard behavior.) To solve this problem, you can write complex code on the client side to update the records of the two tables according to the specific rules.

A completely different approach is to retrieve a single dataset that already includes the detail as a dataset field, a field of type TDataSetField. To accomplish this, you need to set up the master/detail relation on the server application:

object TableCustomer: TTable
  DatabaseName = 'DBDEMOS'
  TableName = 'customer.db'
end
object TableOrders: TTable
  DatabaseName = 'DBDEMOS'
  MasterFields = 'CustNo'
  MasterSource = DataSourceCust
  TableName = 'ORDERS.DB'
end
object DataSourceCust: TDataSource
  DataSet = TableCustomer
end
object ProviderCustomer: TDataSetProvider
  DataSet = TableCustomer
end

On the client side, the detail table will show up as an extra field of the ClientDataSet, and the DBGrid control will display it as an extra column with an ellipsis button. Clicking the button will display a secondary form with a grid presenting the detail table (see Figure 16.6). If you need to build a flexible user interface on the client, you can then add a secondary ClientDataSet connected to the dataset field of the master dataset, using the DataSetField property. Simply create persistent fields for the main ClientDataSet and then hook up the property:

Click To expand
Figure 16.6:  The ThinPlus example shows how a dataset field can either be displayed in a grid in a floating window or extracted by a ClientDataSet and displayed in a second form. You'll generally do one of the two things, not both!
object cdsDet: TClientDataSet
  DataSetField = cdsTableOrders
end

With this setting, you can show the detail dataset in a separate DBGrid placed as usual in the form (the bottom grid of Figure 16.6) or any other way you like. Note that with this structure, the updates relate only to the master table, and the server should handle the proper update sequence even in complex situations.

Using the Connection Broker

I've already mentioned that the ConnectionBroker component can be helpful in case you might want to change the physical connection used by many ClientDataSet components of a single program. By hooking each ClientDataSet to the ConnectionBroker, you can change the physical connection of all the ClientDataSets by updating the physical connection of the broker.

The ThinPlus example uses these settings:

object Connection: TSocketConnection
  ServerName = 'AppSPlus.AppServerPlus'
  AfterConnect = ConnectionAfterConnect
  Address = '127.0.0.1'
end
object ConnectionBroker1: TConnectionBroker
  Connection = Connection
end
object cds: TClientDataSet
  ConnectionBroker = ConnectionBroker1
end
// in the secondary form
object cdsQuery: TClientDataSet
  ConnectionBroker = ClientForm.ConnectionBroker1
end

That's basically all you have to do. To change the physical connection, drop a new DataSnap connection component to the main form and set the Connection property of the broker to it.

More Provider Options

I've already mentioned the Options property of the DataSetProvider component, noting that you can use it to add the field properties to the data packet. There are several other options you can use to customize the data packet and the behavior of the client program. Here is a short list:

  • You can minimize downloading BLOB data with the poFetchBlobsOnDemand option. In this case, the client application can download BLOBs by setting the FetchOnDemand property of the ClientDataSet to True or by calling the FetchBlobs method for specific records. Similarly, you can disable the automatic downloading of detail records by setting the poFetchDetailsOnDemand option. Again, the client can use the FetchOnDemand property or call the FetchDetails method.

  • When you are using a master/detail relation, you can control cascades with either of two options. The poCascadeDeletes flag controls whether the provider should delete detail records before deleting a master record. You can set this option if the database server performs cascaded deletes for you as part of its referential integrity support. Similarly, you can set the poCascadeUpdates option when the server can automatically update key values of a master/detail relation.

  • You can limit the operations on the client side. The most restrictive option, poReadOnly, disables any update. If you want to give the user a limited editing capability, use poDisableInserts, poDisableEdits, or poDisableDeletes.

  • You can use poAutoRefresh to resend to the client a copy of the records the client has modified; doing so is useful in case other users have simultaneously made other, nonconflicting changes. You can also specify the poPropogateChanges option to send back to the client changes done in the BeforeUpdateRecord or AfterUpdateRecord event handler. This option is also handy when you are using autoincrement fields, triggers, and other techniques that modify data on the server or middle tier beyond the changes requested from the client tier.

  • Finally, if you want the client to drive the operations, you can enable the poAllowCommandText option. It lets you set the SQL query or table name of the middle tier from the client, using the GetRecords or Execute method.

The Simple Object Broker

The SimpleObjectBroker component provides an easy way to locate a server application among several server computers. You provide a list of available computers, and the client will try each of them in order until it finds one that is available.

Moreover, if you enable the LoadBalanced property, the component will randomly choose one of the servers; when many clients use the same configuration, the connections will be automatically distributed among the multiple servers. If this seems like a "poor man's" object broker, consider that some highly expensive load-balancing systems don't offer much more than this.

Object Pooling

When multiple clients connect to your server at the same time, you have two options. The first is to create a remote data module object for each of them and let each request be processed in sequence (the default behavior for a COM server with the ciMultiInstance style). Alternatively, you can let the system create a different instance of the server application for every client (ciSingleInstance). This approach requires more resources and more SQL server connections (and possibly licenses).

An alternate approach is offered by DataSnap's support for object pooling. All you need to do to request this feature is add a call to RegisterPooled in the overridden UpdateRegistry method. Combined with the stateless support built in to this architecture, the pooling capability allows you to share some middle-tier objects among a much larger number of clients. A pooling mechanism is built in to COM+, but DataSnap makes it available for HTTP and socket-based connections as well.

The users on the client computers will spend most of their time reading data and typing in updates, and they generally don't continue asking for data and sending updates. When the client is not calling a method of the middle-tier object, this same remote data module can be used for another client. Being stateless, every request reaches the middle tier as a brand-new operation, even when a server is dedicated to a specific client.

Customizing the Data Packets

There are many ways to include custom information within the data packet handled by the IAppServer interface. The simplest is to handle the OnGetDataSetProperties event of the provider. This event has a Sender parameter, a dataset parameter indicating where the data is coming from, and an OleVariant array Properties parameter, in which you can place the extra information. You need to define one variant array for each extra property and include the name of the extra property, its value, and whether you want the data to return to the server along with the update delta (the IncludeInDelta parameter).

Of course, you can pass properties of the related dataset component, but you can also pass any other value (extra fake properties). In the AppSPlus example, I pass to the client the time the query was executed and its parameters:

procedure TAppServerPlus.ProviderQueryGetDataSetProperties(
  Sender: TObject; DataSet: TDataSet; out Properties: OleVariant);
begin
  Properties := VarArrayCreate([0,1], varVariant);
  Properties[0] := VarArrayOf(['Time', Now, True]);
  Properties[1] := VarArrayOf(['Param', Query.Params[0].AsString, False]);
end;

On the client side, the ClientDataSet component has a GetOptionalParameter method to retrieve the value of the extra property with the given name. The ClientDataSet also has the SetOptionalParameter method to add more properties to the dataset. These values will be saved to disk (in the briefcase model) and eventually sent back to the middle tier (by setting the IncludeInDelta member of the variant array to True). Here is a simple example of the retrieval of the dataset in the previous code:

Caption := 'Data sent at ' + TimeToStr (TDateTime (
  cdsQuery.GetOptionalParam('Time')));
Label1.Caption := 'Param ' + cdsQuery.GetOptionalParam('Param');

The effect of this code was visible in Figure 16.5. An alternative and more powerful approach for customizing the data packet sent to the client is to handle the OnGetData event of the provider, which receives the outgoing data packet in the form of a client dataset. Using the methods of this client dataset, you can edit data before it is sent to the client. For example, you might encode some of the data or filter out sensitive records.


 
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